The city of Luxembourg is located between Germany and France. The terrain is strategically situated and difficult of access. It was once an important military fortress in Western Europe. There were three moats, dozens of strong castles, 23 kilometers of underground tunnels and dark castles. It is known as “the north of Gibraltar.” It’s an ancient city with a history of more than 1,000 years that is famous for its fortress. This is a city full of history, fortifications, art and cultural treasures. It’s a small city that has great exquisiteness. Hiking is the best way to explore this city built on a canyon. Follow me to see what the interesting sights are in Luxembourg City.
1. Bock Casemates
Luxembourg Castle is also known as Bock Casemates, which is located in the northeast part of Luxembourg’s old town. Its rocky cliff tower is surrounded by the Alzette River, which becomes a natural defense. It was already here when the Count Siegfried built his “little castle” in 963, which was the foundation for the development of Luxembourg City. Overlooking the gorge from the fortress is on a magnificent scale. The castle has been reinforced, attacked and rebuilt over and over again for centuries. The Burgundians, the Habsburgs, the Spaniards, the Prussians and the French all fought to compete for this military fortress. It was not until the signing of the <London Agreement> in 1867 that the war ceased. In addition, the agreement provided for the removal of defensive measures. The historical remains of the castle and its spectacular underground art gallery continue to attract visitors from all over the world.
2. Cornice Road
The defensive wall on the banks of the Alzette River in Grund is known as the “most beautiful European balcony”. There were steep steps and the outer protective wall was removed after removing the defense function, thus which formed a slow 360 degree viewing platform where we can take a look at the beautiful scenery of the Grund River Valley with the thick walls, the calm river and the fallen leaves in autumn and winter. Along the slope of the canyon, you can go down to the bottom of the valley. If we look up at the city wall from the bottom of the valley, there is another scene. Every picture taken is a blend of history and beauty.
3. Petros Canyon
The Grand Canyon of Luxembourg is one of the world’s most famous scenic spots. It is about 100 meters wide and 60 meters deep. The city of Luxembourg is naturally divided into new and old cities. The Constitution Square is the best place to see the Grand Canyon and its scenery on both sides. Opposite the Grand Canyon, the ancient trees are towering and growing in different directions, which shows the unconstrained natural beauty of the Grand Canyon. Surrounded by lush greenery, a palace-like building is located in the greenery, which is extraordinarily magnificent. It is the National Savings Bank of Luxembourg. Walking along the ancient stone steps leading to the depths of the canyon, you can see the hidden streams under the cover of the jungle and the clear flowing water. You can also enjoy the canyon scenery on the open-air train “Petros Express”.
4. Adolf Bridge
The Adolf Bridge was the largest stone arch in the world at the time with a total length of 153 meters and a span of 85 meters. The stone bridge is quaint and thick, which spans the entire canyon. The Adolf Bridge was built between 1900 and 1903. It was named after the first Grand Duke Adolf, when Luxembourg was separated from Netherlands. It’s designed by the French Paul Sejourne and the Luxembourgian Paul Rodange. The structure of the bridge mimics the Walnut Road Bridge in Philadelphia. Adolf Bridge takes on the traffic function across the Pietrus River, connecting the Royal Mile on the Upper Town and the Liberty Avenue to the train station. There are 4 highway routes, three of which lead to the train station and one for the bus. There are two sidewalks for pedestrians.
5. Constitution Square
The Constitution Square is one of the most famous scenic spots in the city that is situated on the edge of the canyon in the old town. It is the best location for overlooking the Grand Canyon and the famous Adolf Bridge. The Gëlle Fra monument on the square is a landmark of Luxembourg with red granite stone. It was built in 1923 to commemorate the 3,000 Luxembourg soldiers killed in the First World War. It is 12 meters high. The top is a gold-plated girl built by the local artist Klaus symbolizing freedom and resistance. The laurel wreath in her hands represents the victory. The monument was damaged by the war in 1940 and restored as it was in 1984.
6. Grand Duke Palace
The Grand Duke Palace is located in the south of Luxembourg. It’s the official address of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and is also the place where he exercises his authority as the head of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The palace was built in 1244 and was destroyed in the fire of 1554. Since its re-establishment, it has been officially used as a residence since 1890. The interior decoration of the palace is exquisite and beautiful. The Grand Duke Palace is opened to visitors from mid-July to the end of August each year. Tickets must be booked in advance and the visit must be guided by a tour guide.
7. Cathedral of Our Lady
The Church of Our Lady was originally founded by the Jesuits in 1613. In 1773, the Jesuits were once disbanded. The Queen of Austria, Maria Teresia donated the church to Luxembourg. In the modern 20th century, the church was expanded and becomes now the only main cathedral in the entire Luxembourg parish. The Church of Our Lady is a product of the combination of Renaissance art and Baroque style. The interior of the church is splendid and the inner altar is decorated with a precious alabaster statue. The wall pillar is engraved with an Allah image.
8. Guillaume II Square
The Guillaume II Square located in the old town of Luxembourg is also known as the William II Square. It’s named after the King of the Netherlands and the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, William II. The City Hall and the Tourist Service Center are located on the side of the square. There is a bronze statue of William II in the center. He rode arrogantly on the horse holding a top hat in his right hand. His eyes were facing the front, and he was very powerful. This bronze statue is built on a tall marble pedestal with a figure motif, which is majestic. The square is usually solemn while it becomes lively when it’s used as a market by the end of the week.
9. Natural History Museum
The Natural History Museum is located in the south of Luxembourg City and it’s on the eastern bank of the Alzette River in the Grund district. The museum is close to the cultural center of the Neumunster Cathedral. The museum consists of eight separate science and education districts with multiple areas of the natural sciences including: Botany, Ecology, Geology, Mineralogy, Geography, Astronomy, Paleontology, Vertebrate Zoology and Invertebrate Zoology. It’s definitely an entertaining museum that is perfect for children.
10. American Cemetery and Memorial
The cemetery buried the 5,076 soldiers killed in World War II. The structure and construction of the cemetery were designed and built by two architects from New York in the 1950s. The original wooden tombstone was replaced by a white solemn Italian marble over time. General Barton’s tomb is in the middle of the front end of the cemetery, which symbolizes the leadership of the soldiers in the bloody battle. Standing in front of the cemetery and seeing rows of white crosses lining up neatly, people will sincerely admire the soldiers who sacrificed for the world peace! Cherish peace and remember the suffering.